The Important Philosophers


Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546)

Martin Luther was mostly known for starting/leading in the Protestant Revolution. "He was a monk, priest, professor, and theologian."
His "95 Theses" which denounced the Catholic Church for selling indulgences infuriated the Catholic Church. He wrote the theses because the Catholic Church was selling indulgences (A remission granted by the Church which forgives sins made by the person) he believed that people could not buy their way into heaven, they had to be earned. He was later excommunicated from the Catholic Church for his actions. In response, he went to Germany and spread his belief around. Some Germans accepted this new doctrine which Martin Luther called the Lutheran Church (Lutheranism). Click here for more information about Martin Luther


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John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564)

John Calvin was another religous reformist during the Protestant Reformation, and he founded the Calvinism (Calvinist Religion). He was a French Christian theologian during the reformation. His original name was Jean Chauvin. Calvin derives from the latin version of his name Calvinus. At the age of 14, he went to the University of Paris, and at the age of 23, he recieved a Doctor in Law degree. He lived off of one meal per day, except for an egg and a glass of wine and noon. When he died he was buried with a tombstone engraved only with "J.C." He did not want a large or largely attended funeral, he wanted a nice peaceful and empty funeral. Click Here for more information about John Calvin.

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John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704)

John Locke was an english philosopher which greatly influenced the Western world during the enlightenment. He is credited in the founding of British Empericism and he believed in the Natural Rights (Every man has the right from birth to life, liberty, and property). He also believed in a man's right of rebellion if he was not granted these rights. He usually did not write large works of literature, but essays, letters, and other shorter pieces of literature. Though short, they were still very influential and it shows in many and laws and governments such as the U.S. government and constitution. Click here for more information abou John Locke.

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Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543)

Copernicus was an astronomer who founded the theory of the Sun being the center of the universe, not the Earth. His fascination in astronomy began in the Cracow Academy. He enrolled in an astronomy class there and he became deeply fascinated in it. He kept studying and later became a biship like his uncle who payed for everything since his parents had died during his early childhood. He did not give up on astronomy and he "published Copernicus' major theory was published in the book, revolutionibus orbium coelestium" After publishing his work, he soon died. For more information about Copernicus click here.

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Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727)

"Issac Newton was was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher who is generally regarded as one of the greatest scientists in history." He is best know for the laws of gravitation anf the three laws of motion. He was also one of the leaders of the scientific revolution. He also developed many other laws and theories. For more go here.

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Name
Time Period/ Movement
George Berkeley
The Enlightenment
David Hume
The Enlightenment
Benjamin Franklin
The Enlightenment
Thomas Hobbes
The Enlightenment
John Wycliffe
The Protestant Reformation
Huldrych Zwingli
The Protestant Reformation
Francis Bacon
The Scientific Revolution
Galilaeo Galilei
The Scientific Revolution


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